Explanatory notes below for Act 1, Scene 5
From Macbeth. Ed. Thomas Marc Parrott. New York: American Book Co.
(Line numbers have been altered.)
With this scene a new figure appears upon the stage. It is unnecessary to repeat here what has been said in the Introduction as
to the character of Lady Macbeth; but we may note the striking fashion in which that character is revealed to us. The lady enters
reading a letter in which her husband tells of his encounter with the witches, and of their prophetic greeting. He has already
made inquiries as to the witches, and has learned that their prophecies always come true.1 So he writes to her that she may
rejoice in the greatness that is promised to her as the future queen.
It is interesting to note that there is no suggestion in the letter of any criminal attempt to hasten the fulfilment of the oracle.
Macbeth must have written while in the same mood of half-formed resolve to bide his time that marks the close of scene 3. But
Lady Macbeth has no intention of waiting for chance to crown her. She prefers "the nearest way," that of speedy and violent action.
As yet she knows nothing of the obstacle which the proclamation of Malcolm as heir-apparent puts between Macbeth and the crown.
The only obstacle she sees lies in the character of her husband. He is ambitious, but is unwilling to play false to attain the objects
of his ambition. Yet she is so sure of her influence over him that she prays he may return speedily, in order that she may inspire him
to action and drive out any scruples that may bar the way to his goal. When she hears of Duncan's approaching visit, she realizes
instantly that Fate has delivered the king into her husband's hands, and invokes the powers of evil to strengthen her for the terrible
deed that must be done at once. On Macbeth's arrival she takes the matter into her own hands; she does not argue or persuade, but
with quiet determination assures him that Duncan will never leave their castle alive, and that she will arrange all the details.
is, as it were, stunned by her decision. He has, indeed, meditated
the murder of his master; but he has by no means decided upon it, and he would like more time for consideration. His wife, however, cuts the scene short, bidding him show a friendly face to his royal guest and leave all the rest to her.
1. From the abruptness with which the scene begins, we must fancy that Lady Macbeth has already read a part of the letter
before she comes on the stage. Perhaps, when she came to the prophecy of the witches, she felt that she must be alone, and withdrew from the hall of the castle to the chamber in which the scene takes place.
2. the perfectest report, the most accurate information.
9, 10. referred me to the coming on of time, directed me to the
13. dues of rejoicing, the due, or natural, joy.
18. the milk of human kindness, the gentleness of humanity, of
human nature. Lady Macbeth knows her husband well enough
to feel sure that, however brave he is on the field of battle, he will
hesitate to commit a murder. Compare Macbeth's own words
when the idea of the crime enters his mind, i. 3. 134-7.
21. The illness should attend it, the wickedness, or at least the
unscrupulousness, which must go along with ambition, if the ambition is to be gratified.
21, 22. what thou ... holily, the high objects which you aim
at, you would like to gain innocently.
24. That which cries. The best interpretation of this much disputed passage is probably that which takes "that" as referring to
Duncan's death. The passage may then be paraphrased as follows: "Thou wouldst like to have, great Glamis, that [the death of
Duncan] which cries 'Thus thou must do [kill Duncan] if thou
art to have it, [the crown], and that [the murder] is a thing which
thou dost rather fear to do thyself than wishest to be left undone.'"
28. chastise. The accent is on the first syllable.
29. the golden rounds, the crown.
30. metaphysical, supernatural.
31. withal, with.
30. 31. doth seem ... withal, seems about to crown you with.
32. comes here to-night. It seems for the moment so impossible
that the opportunity for instant action can thus be placed in her
hands that Lady Macbeth exclaims that the messenger must be
34. informed for preparation, given me the news so that I
36. had the speed of, outstripped.
38. tending, attention.
39. The raven, a bird of ill omen.
40. entrance, pronounced like a word of three syllables, "enterance."
41. Come, you spirits, etc. Note how Lady Macbeth nerves
herself to meet the terrible strain of the coming night. It is plain
from line 53 that she means to commit the murder herself. And
that she may be strong enough in mind and body to do so, she
invokes all the spirits that delight in thoughts and deeds of blood
to strip her of her woman's weakness and fill her with the power of
evil. Note the pause in the line before the invocation begins.
42. mortal, murderous.
44. thick, coarse, unfeeling, and so the readier for deeds of
45. remorse, pity.
46. compunctious visitings of nature, natural feelings of pity.
47. fell, cruel.
47, 48. keep peace ... it, interpose between the "effect," i.e. the
murder, and her purpose to commit it.
49. take my milk for gall, turn my kindliness (cf. line 18 above)
49. murdering ministers, servants, or instruments, of murder.
50. sightless substances, invisible forms.
51. nature's mischief, all that is evil in nature.
56. the all-hail hereafter. Lady Macbeth unconsciously echoes
the words of the third witch in i. 3. 50.
58. This ignorant present, either "this present which is ignorant
of the glory that awaits it," or "this obscure, inglorious present."
The second seems somewhat the better meaning. The metre of
this line is somewhat irregular. "Ignorant" must be pronounced
almost like a word of two syllables; and there is a heavy stress on
the words "feel" and "now" which necessitates a slight pause
between them. We may scan as follows:
59. in the instant, at this moment.
64, 65. To beguile ... like the time, in order to deceive the world,
appear with a smiling face as the present occasion requires.
71. solely sovereign sway, undisputed royal power.
72-74. Macbeth is still undecided; he can neither accept nor reject the situation. His wife, however, does not deign to discuss
the matter any further. She only repeats her injunction to beware
of showing his thoughts in his face.
73. favour, countenance.
73, 74. To alter favour ... fear, To change the expression
or the colour of one's face is always a sign of fear.
1. Macbeth must have made these inquiries immediately after the encounter with the witches, and before his meeting with Duncan, since
there is no reference in his letter to Duncan's approaching visit. We may imagine that Macbeth found some one at Forres who had already
had dealings with the witches, and who could assure him of their credibility.
How to cite the explanatory notes:
Shakespeare, William. Macbeth. Ed. Thomas Marc Parrott. New York: American Book Co., 1904. Shakespeare Online. 10 Aug. 2010. < http://www.shakespeare-online.com/plays/macbeth_1_5.html >.
Points to Ponder ... "Her love for Macbeth, upon which so much stress has been laid, seems, when considered in reference to her worldly position and interests, worthy of little, if any, commendation. She knows her fortunes are now linked with his, and that with his increasing power her own will rise proportionately, owing to her influence over him. Shakespeare's noble language alone gives an apparent dignity to a base, shameless character, whose ambition is selfish and worldly. The language with which this hateful woman persuades her brave yet weak husband to slay the King is in Shakespeare's grandest style." Albert Canning. Read on...