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The Tempest

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ACT I SCENE II The island. Before PROSPERO'S cell. 
MIRANDAIf by your art, my dearest father, you have
Put the wild waters in this roar, allay them.
The sky, it seems, would pour down stinking pitch,
But that the sea, mounting to the welkin's cheek,
Dashes the fire out. O, I have suffered
With those that I saw suffer: a brave vessel,
Who had, no doubt, some noble creatures in her,
Dash'd all to pieces. O, the cry did knock
Against my very heart. Poor souls, they perish'd.
Had I been any god of power, I would10
Have sunk the sea within the earth or ere
It should the good ship so have swallow'd and
The fraughting souls within her.
PROSPEROBe collected:
No more amazement: tell your piteous heart
There's no harm done.
MIRANDAO, woe the day!
I have done nothing but in care of thee,
Of thee, my dear one, thee, my daughter, who
Art ignorant of what thou art, nought knowing
Of whence I am, nor that I am more better
Than Prospero, master of a full poor cell,20
And thy no greater father.
MIRANDAMore to know
Did never meddle with my thoughts.
I should inform thee farther. Lend thy hand,
And pluck my magic garment from me. So:
[Lays down his mantle]
Lie there, my art. Wipe thou thine eyes; have comfort.
The direful spectacle of the wreck, which touch'd
The very virtue of compassion in thee,
I have with such provision in mine art
So safely ordered that there is no soul--
No, not so much perdition as an hair30
Betid to any creature in the vessel
Which thou heard'st cry, which thou saw'st sink. Sit down;
For thou must now know farther.
MIRANDAYou have often
Begun to tell me what I am, but stopp'd
And left me to a bootless inquisition,
Concluding 'Stay: not yet.'
PROSPEROThe hour's now come;
The very minute bids thee ope thine ear;
Obey and be attentive. Canst thou remember
A time before we came unto this cell?
I do not think thou canst, for then thou wast not40
Out three years old.
MIRANDACertainly, sir, I can.
PROSPEROBy what? by any other house or person?
Of any thing the image tell me that
Hath kept with thy remembrance.
MIRANDA'Tis far off
And rather like a dream than an assurance
That my remembrance warrants. Had I not
Four or five women once that tended me?
PROSPEROThou hadst, and more, Miranda. But how is it
That this lives in thy mind? What seest thou else
In the dark backward and abysm of time?50
If thou remember'st aught ere thou camest here,
How thou camest here thou mayst.
MIRANDABut that I do not.
PROSPEROTwelve year since, Miranda, twelve year since,
Thy father was the Duke of Milan and
A prince of power.
MIRANDASir, are not you my father?
PROSPEROThy mother was a piece of virtue, and
She said thou wast my daughter; and thy father

Was Duke of Milan; thou his only heir, --
A Princess, no worse issued.
MIRANDAO the heavens!
What foul play had we, that we came from thence?60
Or blessed was't we did?
PROSPEROBoth, both, my girl:
By foul play, as thou say'st, were we heaved thence,
But blessedly holp hither.
MIRANDAO, my heart bleeds
To think o' the teen that I have turn'd you to,
Which is from my remembrance! Please you, farther.
PROSPEROMy brother and thy uncle, call'd Antonio --
I pray thee, mark me -- that a brother should
Be so perfidious! -- he whom next thyself
Of all the world I loved and to him put
The manage of my state; as at that time70
Through all the signories it was the first
And Prospero the prime duke, being so reputed
In dignity, and for the liberal arts
Without a parallel; those being all my study,
The government I cast upon my brother
And to my state grew stranger, being transported
And rapt in secret studies. Thy false uncle --
Dost thou attend me?
MIRANDASir, most heedfully.
PROSPEROBeing once perfected how to grant suit,
How to deny them, who to advance and who80
To trash for over-topping, new created
The creatures that were mine, I say, or changed 'em,
Or else new form'd 'em; having both the key
Of officer and office, set all hearts i' the state
To what tune pleased his ear; that now he was
The ivy which had hid my princely trunk,
And suck'd my verdure out on't. Thou attend'st not.
MIRANDAO, good sir, I do.
PROSPEROI pray thee, mark me.
I, thus neglecting worldly ends, all dedicated
To closeness and the bettering of my mind90
With that which, but by being so retired,
O'er-prized all popular rate, in my false brother
Awaked an evil nature; and my trust,
Like a good parent, did beget of him
A falsehood in its contrary as great
As my trust was; which had indeed no limit,
A confidence sans bound. He being thus lorded,
Not only with what my revenue yielded,
But what my power might else exact, like one
Who having into truth, by telling of it,100
Made such a sinner of his memory,
To credit his own lie, he did believe
He was indeed the duke; out o' the substitution
And executing the outward face of royalty,
With all prerogative: hence his ambition growing--
Dost thou hear?
MIRANDAYour tale, sir, would cure deafness.
PROSPEROTo have no screen between this part he play'd
And him he play'd it for, he needs will be
Absolute Milan. Me, poor man, my library
Was dukedom large enough: of temporal royalties110
He thinks me now incapable; confederates--
So dry he was for sway--wi' the King of Naples
To give him annual tribute, do him homage,
Subject his coronet to his crown and bend
The dukedom yet unbow'd--alas, poor Milan!--
To most ignoble stooping.
MIRANDAO the heavens!
PROSPEROMark his condition and the event; then tell me
If this might be a brother.
MIRANDAI should sin
To think but nobly of my grandmother:
Good wombs have borne bad sons.
PROSPERONow the condition.120
The King of Naples, being an enemy
To me inveterate, hearkens my brother's suit;
Which was, that he, in lieu o' the premises
Of homage and I know not how much tribute,
Should presently extirpate me and mine
Out of the dukedom and confer fair Milan
With all the honours on my brother: whereon,
A treacherous army levied, one midnight
Fated to the purpose did Antonio open
The gates of Milan, and, i' the dead of darkness,130
The ministers for the purpose hurried thence
Me and thy crying self.
MIRANDAAlack, for pity!
I, not remembering how I cried out then,
Will cry it o'er again: it is a hint
That wrings mine eyes to't.
PROSPEROHear a little further
And then I'll bring thee to the present business
Which now's upon's; without the which this story
Were most impertinent.
MIRANDAWherefore did they not
That hour destroy us?
PROSPEROWell demanded, wench:
My tale provokes that question. Dear, they durst not,140
So dear the love my people bore me, nor set
A mark so bloody on the business, but
With colours fairer painted their foul ends.
In few, they hurried us aboard a bark,
Bore us some leagues to sea; where they prepared
A rotten carcass of a boat, not rigg'd,
Nor tackle, sail, nor mast; the very rats
Instinctively had quit it: there they hoist us,
To cry to the sea that roar'd to us, to sigh
To the winds whose pity, sighing back again,150
Did us but loving wrong.
MIRANDAAlack, what trouble
Was I then to you!
PROSPEROO, a cherubim
Thou wast that did preserve me. Thou didst smile.
Infused with a fortitude from heaven,
When I have deck'd the sea with drops full salt,
Under my burthen groan'd; which raised in me
An undergoing stomach, to bear up
Against what should ensue.
MIRANDAHow came we ashore?
PROSPEROBy Providence divine.
Some food we had and some fresh water that160
A noble Neapolitan, Gonzalo,
Out of his charity, being then appointed
Master of this design, did give us, with
Rich garments, linens, stuffs and necessaries,
Which since have steaded much; so, of his gentleness,
Knowing I loved my books, he furnish'd me
From mine own library with volumes that
I prize above my dukedom.
MIRANDAWould I might
But ever see that man!
PROSPERONow I arise:
[Resumes his mantle]
Sit still, and hear the last of our sea-sorrow.170
Here in this island we arrived; and here
Have I, thy schoolmaster, made thee more profit
Than other princesses can that have more time
For vainer hours and tutors not so careful.
MIRANDAHeavens thank you for't! And now, I pray you, sir,
For still 'tis beating in my mind, your reason
For raising this sea-storm?
PROSPEROKnow thus far forth.
By accident most strange, bountiful Fortune,
Now my dear lady, hath mine enemies
Brought to this shore; and by my prescience180
I find my zenith doth depend upon
A most auspicious star, whose influence
If now I court not but omit, my fortunes
Will ever after droop. Here cease more questions:
Thou art inclined to sleep; 'tis a good dulness,
And give it way: I know thou canst not choose.
[MIRANDA sleeps]
Come away, servant, come. I am ready now.
Approach, my Ariel, come.
[Enter ARIEL]
ARIELAll hail, great master! grave sir, hail! I come
To answer thy best pleasure; be't to fly,190
To swim, to dive into the fire, to ride
On the curl'd clouds, to thy strong bidding task
Ariel and all his quality.
PROSPEROHast thou, spirit,
Perform'd to point the tempest that I bade thee?
ARIELTo every article.
I boarded the king's ship; now on the beak,
Now in the waist, the deck, in every cabin,
I flamed amazement: sometime I'ld divide,
And burn in many places; on the topmast,
The yards and bowsprit, would I flame distinctly,200
Then meet and join. Jove's lightnings, the precursors
O' the dreadful thunder-claps, more momentary
And sight-outrunning were not; the fire and cracks
Of sulphurous roaring the most mighty Neptune
Seem to besiege and make his bold waves tremble,
Yea, his dread trident shake.
PROSPEROMy brave spirit!
Who was so firm, so constant, that this coil
Would not infect his reason?
ARIELNot a soul
But felt a fever of the mad and play'd
Some tricks of desperation. All but mariners210
Plunged in the foaming brine and quit the vessel,
Then all afire with me: the king's son, Ferdinand,
With hair up-staring,--then like reeds, not hair,--
Was the first man that leap'd; cried, 'Hell is empty
And all the devils are here.'
PROSPEROWhy that's my spirit!
But was not this nigh shore?
ARIELClose by, my master.
PROSPEROBut are they, Ariel, safe?
ARIELNot a hair perish'd;
On their sustaining garments not a blemish,
But fresher than before: and, as thou badest me,
In troops I have dispersed them 'bout the isle.220
The king's son have I landed by himself;
Whom I left cooling of the air with sighs
In an odd angle of the isle and sitting,
His arms in this sad knot.
PROSPEROOf the king's ship
The mariners say how thou hast disposed
And all the rest o' the fleet.
ARIELSafely in harbour
Is the king's ship; in the deep nook, where once
Thou call'dst me up at midnight to fetch dew
From the still-vex'd Bermoothes, there she's hid:
The mariners all under hatches stow'd;230
Who, with a charm join'd to their suffer'd labour,
I have left asleep; and for the rest o' the fleet
Which I dispersed, they all have met again
And are upon the Mediterranean flote,
Bound sadly home for Naples,
Supposing that they saw the king's ship wreck'd
And his great person perish.
PROSPEROAriel, thy charge
Exactly is perform'd: but there's more work.
What is the time o' the day?
ARIELPast the mid season.
PROSPEROAt least two glasses. The time 'twixt six and now
Must by us both be spent most preciously.241
ARIELIs there more toil? Since thou dost give me pains,
Let me remember thee what thou hast promised,
Which is not yet perform'd me.
PROSPEROHow now? moody?
What is't thou canst demand?
ARIELMy liberty.
PROSPEROBefore the time be out? no more!
ARIELI prithee,
Remember I have done thee worthy service;
Told thee no lies, made thee no mistakings, served
Without or grudge or grumblings: thou didst promise
To bate me a full year.
PROSPERODost thou forget250
From what a torment I did free thee?
PROSPEROThou dost, and think'st it much to tread the ooze
Of the salt deep,
To run upon the sharp wind of the north,
To do me business in the veins o' the earth
When it is baked with frost.
ARIELI do not, sir.
PROSPEROThou liest, malignant thing! Hast thou forgot
The foul witch Sycorax, who with age and envy
Was grown into a hoop? hast thou forgot her?
ARIELNo, sir.
PROSPEROThou hast. Where was she born? speak; tell me.261
ARIELSir, in Argier.
PROSPEROO, was she so? I must
Once in a month recount what thou hast been,
Which thou forget'st. This damn'd witch Sycorax,
For mischiefs manifold and sorceries terrible
To enter human hearing, from Argier,
Thou know'st, was banish'd: for one thing she did
They would not take her life. Is not this true?
ARIELAy, sir.
PROSPEROThis blue-eyed hag was hither brought with child
And here was left by the sailors. Thou, my slave,270
As thou report'st thyself, wast then her servant;
And, for thou wast a spirit too delicate
To act her earthy and abhorr'd commands,
Refusing her grand hests, she did confine thee,
By help of her more potent ministers
And in her most unmitigable rage,
Into a cloven pine; within which rift
Imprison'd thou didst painfully remain
A dozen years; within which space she died
And left thee there; where thou didst vent thy groans280
As fast as mill-wheels strike. Then was this island--
Save for the son that she did litter here,
A freckled whelp hag-born--not honour'd with
A human shape.
ARIELYes, Caliban her son.
PROSPERODull thing, I say so; he, that Caliban
Whom now I keep in service. Thou best know'st
What torment I did find thee in; thy groans
Did make wolves howl and penetrate the breasts
Of ever angry bears: it was a torment
To lay upon the damn'd, which Sycorax290
Could not again undo: it was mine art,
When I arrived and heard thee, that made gape
The pine and let thee out.
ARIELI thank thee, master.
PROSPEROIf thou more murmur'st, I will rend an oak
And peg thee in his knotty entrails till
Thou hast howl'd away twelve winters.
ARIELPardon, master;
I will be correspondent to command
And do my spiriting gently.
PROSPERODo so, and after two days
I will discharge thee.
ARIELThat's my noble master!
What shall I do? say what; what shall I do?300
PROSPEROGo make thyself like a nymph o' the sea: be subject
To no sight but thine and mine, invisible
To every eyeball else. Go take this shape
And hither come in't: go, hence with diligence!
[Exit ARIEL]
Awake, dear heart, awake! thou hast slept well; Awake!
MIRANDAThe strangeness of your story put
Heaviness in me.
PROSPEROShake it off. Come on;
We'll visit Caliban my slave, who never
Yields us kind answer.
MIRANDA'Tis a villain, sir,
I do not love to look on.
PROSPEROBut, as 'tis,310
We cannot miss him: he does make our fire,
Fetch in our wood and serves in offices
That profit us. What, ho! slave! Caliban!
Thou earth, thou! speak.
CALIBAN[Within] There's wood enough within.
PROSPEROCome forth, I say! there's other business for thee:
Come, thou tortoise! when?
[Re-enter ARIEL like a water-nymph]
Fine apparition! My quaint Ariel,
Hark in thine ear.
ARIELMy lord it shall be done.
PROSPEROThou poisonous slave, got by the devil himself
Upon thy wicked dam, come forth!320
CALIBANAs wicked dew as e'er my mother brush'd
With raven's feather from unwholesome fen
Drop on you both! a south-west blow on ye
And blister you all o'er!
PROSPEROFor this, be sure, to-night thou shalt have cramps,
Side-stitches that shall pen thy breath up; urchins
Shall, for that vast of night that they may work,
All exercise on thee; thou shalt be pinch'd
As thick as honeycomb, each pinch more stinging
Than bees that made 'em.
CALIBANI must eat my dinner.330
This island's mine, by Sycorax my mother,
Which thou takest from me. When thou camest first,
Thou strokedst me and madest much of me, wouldst give me
Water with berries in't, and teach me how
To name the bigger light, and how the less,
That burn by day and night: and then I loved thee
And show'd thee all the qualities o' the isle,
The fresh springs, brine-pits, barren place and fertile:
Cursed be I that did so! All the charms
Of Sycorax, toads, beetles, bats, light on you!340
For I am all the subjects that you have,
Which first was mine own king: and here you sty me
In this hard rock, whiles you do keep from me
The rest o' the island.
PROSPEROThou most lying slave,
Whom stripes may move, not kindness! I have used thee,
Filth as thou art, with human care, and lodged thee
In mine own cell, till thou didst seek to violate
The honour of my child.
CALIBANO ho, O ho! would't had been done!
Thou didst prevent me; I had peopled else350
This isle with Calibans.
PROSPEROAbhorred slave,
Which any print of goodness wilt not take,
Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee,
Took pains to make thee speak, taught thee each hour
One thing or other: when thou didst not, savage,
Know thine own meaning, but wouldst gabble like
A thing most brutish, I endow'd thy purposes
With words that made them known. But thy vile race,
Though thou didst learn, had that in't which
good natures
Could not abide to be with; therefore wast thou360
Deservedly confined into this rock,
Who hadst deserved more than a prison.
CALIBANYou taught me language; and my profit on't
Is, I know how to curse. The red plague rid you
For learning me your language!
PROSPEROHag-seed, hence!
Fetch us in fuel; and be quick, thou'rt best,
To answer other business. Shrug'st thou, malice?
If thou neglect'st or dost unwillingly
What I command, I'll rack thee with old cramps,
Fill all thy bones with aches, make thee roar370
That beasts shall tremble at thy din.
CALIBANNo, pray thee.
I must obey: his art is of such power,
It would control my dam's god, Setebos,
and make a vassal of him.
PROSPEROSo, slave; hence!
[ Re-enter ARIEL, invisible, playing and singing; FERDINAND following ]
ARIEL'S song.
Come unto these yellow sands,
And then take hands:
Courtsied when you have and kiss'd
The wild waves whist,
Foot it featly here and there;
And, sweet sprites, the burthen bear.380
Hark, hark!
[Burthen (dispersedly, within) Bow-wow]
The watch-dogs bark!
[Burthen Bow-wow]
Hark, hark! I hear
The strain of strutting chanticleer
Cry, Cock-a-diddle-dow.
FERDINANDWhere should this music be? i' the air or the earth?
It sounds no more: and sure, it waits upon
Some god o' the island. Sitting on a bank,
Weeping again the king my father's wreck,390
This music crept by me upon the waters,
Allaying both their fury and my passion
With its sweet air: thence I have follow'd it,
Or it hath drawn me rather. But 'tis gone.
No, it begins again.
[ARIEL sings]
Full fathom five thy father lies;
Of his bones are coral made;
Those are pearls that were his eyes:
Nothing of him that doth fade
But doth suffer a sea-change400
Into something rich and strange.
Sea-nymphs hourly ring his knell
[Burthen Ding-dong]
Hark! now I hear them,--Ding-dong, bell.
FERDINANDThe ditty does remember my drown'd father.
This is no mortal business, nor no sound
That the earth owes. I hear it now above me.
PROSPEROThe fringed curtains of thine eye advance
And say what thou seest yond.
MIRANDAWhat is't? a spirit?
Lord, how it looks about! Believe me, sir,410
It carries a brave form. But 'tis a spirit.
PROSPERONo, wench; it eats and sleeps and hath such senses
As we have, such. This gallant which thou seest
Was in the wreck; and, but he's something stain'd
With grief that's beauty's canker, thou mightst call him
A goodly person: he hath lost his fellows
And strays about to find 'em.
MIRANDAI might call him
A thing divine, for nothing natural
I ever saw so noble.
PROSPERO[Aside] It goes on, I see,
As my soul prompts it. Spirit, fine spirit! I'll free thee420
Within two days for this.
FERDINANDMost sure, the goddess
On whom these airs attend! Vouchsafe my prayer
May know if you remain upon this island;
And that you will some good instruction give
How I may bear me here: my prime request,
Which I do last pronounce, is, O you wonder!
If you be maid or no?
MIRANDANo wonder, sir;
But certainly a maid.
FERDINANDMy language! heavens!
I am the best of them that speak this speech,
Were I but where 'tis spoken.
PROSPEROHow? the best?430
What wert thou, if the King of Naples heard thee?
FERDINANDA single thing, as I am now, that wonders
To hear thee speak of Naples. He does hear me;
And that he does I weep: myself am Naples,
Who with mine eyes, never since at ebb, beheld
The king my father wreck'd.
MIRANDAAlack, for mercy!
FERDINANDYes, faith, and all his lords; the Duke of Milan
And his brave son being twain.
PROSPERO[Aside] The Duke of Milan
And his more braver daughter could control thee,
If now 'twere fit to do't. At the first sight440
They have changed eyes. Delicate Ariel,
I'll set thee free for this.
A word, good sir;
I fear you have done yourself some wrong: a word.
MIRANDAWhy speaks my father so ungently? This
Is the third man that e'er I saw, the first
That e'er I sigh'd for: pity move my father
To be inclined my way!
FERDINANDO, if a virgin,
And your affection not gone forth, I'll make you
The queen of Naples.
PROSPEROSoft, sir! one word more.
They are both in either's powers; but this swift business450
I must uneasy make, lest too light winning
Make the prize light.
One word more; I charge thee
That thou attend me: thou dost here usurp
The name thou owest not; and hast put thyself
Upon this island as a spy, to win it
From me, the lord on't.
FERDINANDNo, as I am a man.
MIRANDAThere's nothing ill can dwell in such a temple:
If the ill spirit have so fair a house,
Good things will strive to dwell with't.
PROSPEROFollow me.
Speak not you for him; he's a traitor. Come;460
I'll manacle thy neck and feet together:
Sea-water shalt thou drink; thy food shall be
The fresh-brook muscles, wither'd roots and husks
Wherein the acorn cradled. Follow.
I will resist such entertainment till
Mine enemy has more power.
[Draws, and is charmed from moving]
MIRANDAO dear father,
Make not too rash a trial of him, for
He's gentle and not fearful.
PROSPEROWhat? I say,
My foot my tutor? Put thy sword up, traitor;
Who makest a show but darest not strike, thy conscience470
Is so possess'd with guilt: come from thy ward,
For I can here disarm thee with this stick
And make thy weapon drop.
MIRANDABeseech you, father.
PROSPEROHence! hang not on my garments.
MIRANDASir, have pity;
I'll be his surety.
PROSPEROSilence! one word more
Shall make me chide thee, if not hate thee. What!
An advocate for an imposter! hush!
Thou think'st there is no more such shapes as he,
Having seen but him and Caliban: foolish wench!480
To the most of men this is a Caliban
And they to him are angels.
MIRANDAMy affections
Are then most humble; I have no ambition
To see a goodlier man.
PROSPEROCome on; obey:
Thy nerves are in their infancy again
And have no vigour in them.
FERDINANDSo they are;
My spirits, as in a dream, are all bound up.
My father's loss, the weakness which I feel,
The wreck of all my friends, nor this man's threats,
To whom I am subdued, are but light to me,490
Might I but through my prison once a day
Behold this maid: all corners else o' the earth
Let liberty make use of; space enough
Have I in such a prison.
PROSPERO[Aside] It works.
Come on.
Thou hast done well, fine Ariel!
Follow me.
Hark what thou else shalt do me.
MIRANDABe of comfort;
My father's of a better nature, sir,
Than he appears by speech: this is unwonted
Which now came from him.
PROSPEROThou shalt be free
As mountain winds: but then exactly do500
All points of my command.
ARIELTo the syllable.
PROSPEROCome, follow. Speak not for him.

The Tempest, Act 2, Scene 1


Explanatory Notes for Act 1, Scene 2

From The Tempest. Ed. K. Deighton. London: Macmillan.

1, 2. If by ... them. If by your art you have cast the waves into such a state of wild commotion, I entreat you to calm them again; wild is proleptic, the waters which you have made wild; for the usage of roar, a subs. for the verbal noun, Wright compares 'stare,' iii. 3. 95, below.

3. stinking pitch, a deluge of rain as black and foul as pitch.

4. But that, if it were not that, etc. Malone quotes Lear. iii. 7. 69-61, "The sea in such a storm as his bare head In hell-black night endur'd, would have buoy'd up And quench'd the stelled fires": welkin, sky; derivation uncertain, used as an adj. in W. T. i. 2. 136. For cheek, Delius compares R. II. iii. 3. 57, "the cloudy cheeks of heaven"; Cor. v. 3. 161, "The wide cheeks o' the air."

5. fire, a dissyllable.

6. brave, gallant, fine-looking. This sense of the word is intermediate between 'courageous' and 'showy.' Shakespeare and Bacon both use 'bravery' in the sense of 'ostentation,' 'display,' e.g. M. M. i. 3. 10, Essay xxxvi., and also in the sense of 'bravado,' e.g, Oth. i. 1. 100, Essays xi., xxv., lvii. These senses, whether in the sub. or the adj., are now almost entirely obsolete.

7. creatures. Knight retains the reading of the folio, 'creature,' believing that Miranda meant some 'superior person' on board as well as the 'poor souls,' the common sailors, whom she saw perish.

9. Against ... heart, penetrated to the very centre of my heart.

10. god of power, god possessed of power, powerful god; cp. 1. 55, below, "prince of power," A. C. iii. 4. 29, "the Jove of power."

11. or ere. See Abb. § 131.

13. ffraughting souls, those who formed its fraught or freight: Be collected, do not be so distracted, recover your equanimity.

14. No ... amazement, let there be no more, do not give way to any more, amazement, consternation; cp. K. J. v. 1. 137, "And wild amazement hurries up and down The little number of your doubtful friends."

15. woe the day! woe to the day, alas for the day; cp. 'woe the while,' 'woe is me,' etc., and see Abb. § 230: No harm, Johnson and Walker would give the words, with a note of interrogation, to Miranda.

19. Of whence, for the redundancy here, see Abb. § 179, and for the double comparative § 11.

20. full poor, thoroughly mean, wretched.

21. And ... father. And thy father, whose greatness consists in nothing more than being master, etc.

21. More ... thoughts. It never mixed with my thoughts, entered into my mind, to wish to know more than this.

24. So, that is well.

25. Lie ... art, apostrophizing his mantle, with the putting on or off of which his magic powers were assumed or laid aside. "Sir W. Cecil, lord Burleigh, lord high treasurer, etc., when he put off his gown at night used to say, 'Lie there, lord treasurer.' Fuller's Holy State" (Steevens).

26-32. The direful ... sink. The wreck, the sight of which touched to the quick your feelings of pity, I have, by the provident care belonging to my magic art, so managed that not a single creature on board the vessel has suffered so much injury as the loss of a single hair. Various emendations have been proposed here: Rowe, 'no soul lost'; Theobald, 'no foil'; Johnson, 'no soil,' i.e., stain, blemish; Capell, 'no loss': but probably Shakespeare began the sentence with one construction and ended it with another; cp. Oth. i. 3. 62-4; M. V. iv. 1. 134-6. The ... virtue, "the most efficacious part, the energetic quality; in a like sense we say, the virtue of the plant is its extract" (Johnson). For provision Hunter conjectured 'prevision,' which has been adopted by Dyce and Singer.

31. Betid, see Abb. § 342: cry, of course, refers to creature, sink to vessel .

33. must ... know, i.e. the right moment to tell you has now come.

35. And ... inquisition, and left me vainly to question myself as to what it was that you were going to tell me; though she says above, "More to know did never meddle with my thoughts": bootless, vain; Shakespeare uses both the subs. 'boot,' profit, and the impersonal verb 'it boots': A.S. bot, profit, advantage.

37. The very ... ear; not merely has the hour come, but this very instant it is necessary that you should listen to what I have to tell you.

41. Out ... old, fully three years old; cp. below, iv. 1. 101, "and be a boy right out," i.e, completely.

42. by any ... person? What is it which enables you to remember a time before we came here? Is it by your recollection of any other house or person that you are enabled to recall that time?

43-4. Of any ... remembrance. Mention to me any fact or occurrence the recollection of which still dwells in your mind. In kept with there is the idea of dwelling in a house with someone else; cp. M. V. iii. 3. 19, "It is the most impenetrable cur That ever kept with."

44-6. 'Tis ... warrants. What I remember is in the far background of time, and more resembles a dream than any fact the certainty of which can be guaranteed by recollection, justly so called.

50. backward, as examples of adverbs first turned into adjectives and then used as nouns, Wright compares 'inward,' M. M. iii. 2. 138, 'outward,' Sonnets. lxix. 5. See Abb. § 77. abysm, abyss, a depth that is without bottom; directly from the O. F. abisme.

52. thou mayst, i.e., remember. But that ... not, but how I came here I do not remember.

53. Twelve ... since. In order that this line should scan, some editors have supposed that year in the former instance is a dissyllable, in the latter a monosyllable; but the Camb. Edd. well remark, "That one word should bear two pronunciations in one line is far more improbable than that the unaccented syllable before 'twelve' is purposely omitted by the poet; and few readers will not acknowledge the solemn effect of such a verse." For the sing. year, cp. 'fathom five,' i. 2. 396, below; 'ten mile,' M. A. ii. 3. 14; 'fifteen year,' T. S. Ind. ii. 115; 'a thousand pound,' Haml. iii. 2. 298. In all such cases measurement or weight are spoken of, and these are looked upon in the aggregate.

55. A ... power, see note on 1. 10 above.

56, 7. Thy ... daughter; an indirect way of saying that he was her father. For piece, to denote a person of supreme excellence, cp. A. C. iii. 2. 28, Per. iv. 6. 118, W. T. iv. 4. 32, "Their transformations Were never for a piece of beauty rarer" (than Perdita). The word was, however, sometimes used in contempt.

58, 9. thou ... issued. The folios read, "and his only heir and princess," etc. Pope altered 'And' in the latter line to 'A,' and has been followed by Dyce, Delias, Singer, Staunton; Dyce and Singer in the former line read 'thou his' without 'and.' These two alterations I have adopted: no worse issued, of no meaner descent; cp. M. M. iii. 1. 143, "For such a warped slip of wilderness Ne'er issued from his blood"; i. H. VI. v. 4. 38, "Not me begotten of a shepherd swain, But issued from the progeny of kings."

60. that ... thence? which resulted in our coming, etc.

61. Or blessed ... did? Or was it a fortunate circumstance that we came, etc.

63. holp, for 'holpen,' see Abb. § 343. 'Holp' is also used by Shakespeare as a preterite; cp. R. III. i. 2. 107, "Let him thank me, that holp to send him thither."

64. teen, trouble, anxiety.

67, 8. that ... perfidious! to think that a brother should, etc.; what an awful thought!

69, 70. and ... state, and made over to him, entrusted him with, the, etc.: manage is also used by Shakespeare of the training or breaking in of a horse; 'management' is a later coinage.

70-2. as at ... duke, which at that time was the first in rank of all the principalities, while I had the reputation of being superior in point of dimity to all my peers, and, in knowledge of the liberal arts, without equal: liberal, contrasted with 'mechanical'; cp. Marlowe, Doctor Faustus, i. 1. 35, "His study fits a mercenary drudge ... Too servile and illiberal for me": on as = 'as regards which,' 'though,' 'for,' see Abb. § 111.

74. those ... study, those being the whole subject of my occupation, I being wholly taken up with, etc.

76. stranger, seems to be a subs. here: transported, carried away by.

78. Dost thou ... me? Are you attentive to what I am saying?

79-82. Being ... 'em: Having once made himself perfect in the art of granting suits and of refusing them (without exciting ill-will), and having learnt whom it would be expedient to advance and whom to check for behaving in an overbearing manner, created as his own officers those who had originally been of my creation, or changed them for others, or else, if he retained them, formed them anew after his own pattern. Schmidt takes changed as = 'transformed,' which does not seem to differ from or else new formed 'em, and takes away from the force of else. Wright considers or ... or as equivalent to either ... or. Two interpretations have been given for 'to trash,' (1) to lop, (2) to clog; in the former case the metaphor is from arboriculture, in the latter, from hunting. The majority of modern commentators are in favour of the latter, but it has not been shown that to 'overtop' is a technical term of the chase, though it is of arboriculture; nor that 'trash' is used in arboriculture, though it is in hunting. That Dryden took 'trash' in the former sense is evident, as in his and Davenant's recension of the play the line runs, "Or lop for over topping." Perhaps there is a confusion of metaphors.

83-5. having ... ear; i.e., the tuning key; being, able to dispose of all offices as he pleased, and to make the holders of them act exactly in accordance with his wishes. Cp. a similar metaphor in Oth. ii. 1. 202, "O, you are well tuned now! But I'll set down the pegs that make this music."

85-7. that now ... on't. So that by this time he had become, in reference to me, the ivy whose overgrowth obscures the tree round which it twines, and sucks its ireshness, its life's blood, out of it. Ellacombe, Plant-Lore of Shakespeare, says the ivy "will very soon destroy soft-wooded trees such as the poplar and the ash by its tight embrace, not by sucking out the sap, but by preventing the outward growth of the shoots and checking—and at length preventing the flow of the sap." ... on, for of, is frequent in Shakespeare. For the idea here compare Bacon, Hist. of Henry the Seventh. vol. vi., p. 202, Spedding's edition: "But it was ordained that this winding-ivy of a Plantagenet (Perkin Warbeck) should kill the true tree itself."

89-92. all ... rate, being wholly given up to the life of a recluse, and to the improving of my mind with inquiries which, if it were not for their being of a nature demanding such close and solitary study, were worth more than all popular applause and esteem, rate, for 'estimation,' as below, ii. 1. 109, and frequently in Shakespeare.

93-6. and my ... was; and my trust, as is often the case with parents in regard to the children they beget, engendered in him a treachery correspondingly great. "Alluding," says Johnson, "to the observation that a father above the common rate of men has generally a son below it." For its, see Abb. § 228.

97. sans, without: Wright remarks that this French preposition "may perhaps have been employed at first in purely French phrases, such as 'sans question,' L. L. L. v. 1. 91; 'sans compliment,' K. J. V. 6. 16. But Shakespeare uses it with other words, as here and in Haml. iii. 4. 79, 'sans all' and other passages. Compare A. Y. L. ii. 7. 116"....

97, 9. He being ... exact, he being invested, as a lord, not only with the wealth which my revenues yielded, but also with whatever the exercise of my power might forcibly exact: the words like one ... his own lie are parenthetic, and the nom. case he is repeated in consequence of the length of the parenthesis.

100-3. Who ... duke, "who having made his memory such a sinner to truth as to credit his own lie by telling of it [i.e., by repeatedly telling it]" (Boswell), came to believe he really was the rightful duke. Malone quotes a passage from Bacon's Hist. of Henry VII, regarding Perkin Warbeck: "Nay himself, with long and continual counterfeiting, and with oft telling a lye, was turned by habit almost into the thing he seemed to be; and from a liar to be a believer." it, sc. the lie: into, for unto, as fre quently in Shakespeare.

103-5. out ... prerogative: in consequence of having filled my place, and having worn the appearance, and exercised the functions, of royalty, with all its dignities and privileges; 'prerogative' meant a previous choice or election, and was originally used of those whose opinion was asked before others; a technical term, in Roman elections, of the tribe that was first called upon to give its vote. For substitution, cp. ii. H. IV. i. 3. 84, "But who is substituted 'gainst the French, I have no certain knowledge," i.e. who is to act as deputy for the king in commanding his forces against the French.

106. thou, "in Shakespeare's time ... was the pronoun of (1) affection towards friends, (2) good-humoured superiority to servants, and (3) contempt or anger to strangers. It had, however, already fallen somewhat into disuse, and, being regarded as archaic, was naturally adopted (4) in the higher poetic style and in the language of solemn prayer" ... (Abb. § 231).

107-9. To have ... Milan. In order that there might be nothing between the part assumed and the reality, he was determined to become Duke without any restrictions. him ... for, not Prospero, but the Duke in the abstract.

109, 10. Me ... enough: i.e. as for me; for the construction, Dyce quotes Tim. v. 1. 61, 2, "whose thankless natures, — O, abhored spirits, Not all the whips of heaven are large enough"; M. M. ii. 1, 15, "Erred in this point which now you censure him": large enough, sc. in his contemptuous estimate of me.

111. incapable, unable to wield: confederates, enters into a confederacy, league; Shakespeare does not elsewhere use the verb, though 'confederate,' the subs., 'fedary' and 'federary' occur in the same bad sense.

112. dry, thirsty; Steevens compares T. C. ii. 3, 232, "His ambition is dry."

114. his coronet, dim., crowns worn by noblemen or petty rulers; cp. H. V.. ii. Chor. 10, "With crowns imperial, crowns, and coronets," i.e., crowns such as are worn by emperors, by inferior sovereigns, and by peers.

114-6. and ... stooping. And bow his dukedom, which as yet had never acknowledged any sovereign as paramount lord, to a most ignoble subordination.

117. his condition, his contract, engagement, with the King of Naples: the event, what resulted from that contract.

118. If this ... brother. If this could possibly be; see Abb. § 312.

118, 9. I should ... grandmotber: it would be unbecoming in me to think anything but what was noble of my grandmother, which I should be doing if I doubted whether this man was really your brother; she takes her father's words literally.

122. inveterate, of long standing, and, so, rooted, determined: hearkens, listens to with a favourable ear; for omission of prep, see Abb. § 199, and cp. M. A. iii. 1. 12, "To listen our purpose."

123, 4. in lieu ... tribute, in consideration of the stipulated rendering of homage, and the payment of a certain annual tribute, the exact amount of which I do not know, or remember; in lieu of, lit. 'in place of,' is always used by Shakespeare to mean 'in return for': premises, the things premised, mentioned before between them.

125. presently, at once, immediately; as most generally in Shakespeare: extirpate, with accent on the second syllable.

127. whereon, on which, as a consequence of which agreement and for which purpose.

128. levied, being levied; the part. absolute.

129. Fated ... purpose, decreed by destiny, and, so, made suitable; for purpose, which occurs again two lines lower, Dyce reads 'practice,' i.e. plot, scheme, a conjecture made by Collier's MS. Corrector.

130. i' the dead of darkness, in the death-like stillness of midnight; cp. Haml, i. 2. 198, "in the dead vast and middle of the night"; T. A. ii. 3. 99, "at dead time of the night."

131. The ... purpose, those to whom the execution of the design had been entrusted.

132. Alack, alas; derivation uncertain, commonly said to be a corruption of 'alas' but possibly, acoording to Skeat, to be referred to M.E. lak, signifying 'loss,' 'failure,' etc., and thus meaning 'ah! failure' or 'ah! a loss.'

134. Will ... again, will cry my cry over again; cognate accus.

134, 5. it is.... to 't. What you tell me compels me to have recourse to these tears; hint, motive, occasion, as below, ii. 1. 3, "our hint of woe is common." "Hint properly signifies 'a thing taken,' i.e. a thing caught or apprehended; being a contraction of M. E. hinted, taken; or rather a variant of the old pp. hent with the same sense" (Skeat, Ety. Diet.): wrings, forces, tortures; cp. H. V. iv. 1. 253, "his own wringing" i.e. torture. The word originally means to twist.

135-8. Hear ... impertinent. Listen to a few more words as to what happened in former days, and then I will come to the matter with which we have now to deal, and but for which this relation would be irrelevant, not to the purpose; 'impertinent' and 'impertinency,' are used by Shakespeare in this, their proper, sense only, cp. Lear. iv. 6. 178; in M. V. ii. 2. 146, impertinent is misused by Launcelot for 'pertinent.' So, Bacon, Essay viii, "Account future times impertinencies" i.e. things wholly irrelevant, and Essay xxvi., "and some whatsoever is beyond their reach, will seem to despise, or make light of it, as impertinent or curious," i.e. as irrelevant or over-nice. For the which, see Abb. § 270, and for its use after a previous 'which,' cp. C. E. v. 1. 230, "The chain which God he knows I saw not, for the which He did arrest me."

139. That hour, i.e. at that hour.

139. Well demanded, that is a pertinent question: wench, though now more commonly used in a bad, or, at least, contemptuous sense, was in Shakespeare's day "a general familiar expression in any variation of tone between tenderness and contempt" (Schmidt).

140. provokes, suggests, naturally elicits: durst, the past indicative of dare, in all persons of both numbers. "Dare makes a new preterite, dared, when it signifies to challenge, as 'he dared me to do it'" (Morris, Hist. Outl. etc. , § 299).

141. nor set, nor dared they set.

143. With ... ends. But disguised their foul designs under more specious appearances.

144. In few, in a few words, briefly; for instances of this use of adj. for subs., see Abb. § 5.

146. A rotten ... boat, the mere ruins of a boat utterly unseaworthy; cp. M. V. iii. 1. 6, "where the carcases of many a tall ship lie buried."

147. Nor tackle, nor having tackle, etc.

147, 8. the very ... it: the belief that rats have a presentiment as to a vessel fated to be wrecked, and therefore leave it before a voyage, is of very old origin, and is still held by many sailors. A similar belief is that crows will not build upon trees likely to fall.

148. hoist, thepast tense of 'hoise'; the fut. is used in ii. H. VI. i. 1. 169, "We'll quickly hoise Duke Humphrey from his seat."

150, 1. To the ... wrong. To the winds that out of sympathy returned our sighs, and so, though only through their love, did us harm; the wrong done him by the waves seems to be contrasted with that done him by his brother. Steevens compares W. T. iii. 3. 101, "how the poor souls roared and the sea mocked them."

152, 3. O, a ... me. Rather, says Prospero you were an angel whose presence with me saved me from despair: cherubin, the form of the word which, except in Haml. iv. 3. 50, Shakespeare always uses.

154. Infused, inspired, lit. poured in; cp. T. C. i. 3. 69, "heaven hath infused them with these spirits.

155. deck'd, "would seem to be a form, if it be not a corruption, of the provincialism degg'd, i.e. 'sprinkled' ('Deg, to sprinkle,' Craven Dialect)" (Dyce, Gloss.): full salt, very salt, like the sea itself.

156. Under ... groan'd, sc. and groaned under the burden of my grief which was too heavy to bear without complaint.

156-8. which ... ensue. Which (sc. your smiling) animated me with a courage enabling me to bear up against the coming misfortunes: cp. Cymb. iii. 2. 7, "She's punished for her truth, and undergoes. More goddess-like than wife-like, such assaults As would take in some virtue." stomach is used figuratively by Shakespeare for power of digestion, inclination, anger, stubborn courage, arrogance.

162, 3. being ... design, he being then entrusted with the management of this business; the folios read 'who being,' etc. Pope omitted who, Capell changed it to 'he'; if the folios are rignt there is a confusion of construction.

164. stuffs, goods.

165. have ... much, have stood us in good stead, been of the greatest use to us, cp. Oth. i. 3. 344, " I could never better stead thee than now." so ... gentleness, and in like manner out of his kindness of heart.

168, 9. Would I ... man! 0, that I might only see that man, whenever it might be; see Abb. § 39.

169. Now I arise: Dyce, who in an earlier edition had given as a stage direction, "Resumes his robe," writes in his latest, "I cannot dispel the obscurity which has always hung over these words.... Mr. Staunton gives the words as spoken '[Aside to Ariel, above]'; and cites, in confirmation of that stage-direction, the conclusion of Prosperous next speech, 'Come away, servant, come! I'm ready now: Approach, my Ariel, come.'" Delius prefers Dyce's original suggestion, as indicating that Prospero is about to resume his character as a magician.

172. profit, probably a verb here.

173. princesses, many edd. give the contracted form princess', i.e. 'princesses.' Walker, Shakespeare's Versification, p. 243, says "The plurals of substantives ending in s, in certain instances in se, ss, ce, and sometimes ge; occasionally too, but very rarely, in sh, and ze; are found without the usual addition of s or es, in pronunciation at least, although in many instances the plural affix is added in printing, where the metre shows that it is not to be pronounced."

174. For vainer hours. "'Hours,' of course, is here used for the occupations with which time is employed, as in R. II. iii. 1. 11, 'sinful hours,' and v. 1. 25, 'profane hours'"... (Wright). and tutors, i,.e. and have tutors who are not so careful as to the way in which the time is spent, as I have been in your case.

176. For ... mind, for the thought is still throbbing in, etc.

177. thus ... forth, this much further.

179. Now ... lady, who is now my auspicious mistress, not unpropitious as in earlier days. Delius quotes Cymb. ii. 3. 158, "Your mother too: she's my good lady."

181-4. I find ... droop. I find by my calculations that my prosperity will rise to its highest point, or for all future time sink to its lowest, according as I obey, or neglect, the warning given me by a most auspicious star now in the ascendant; 'zenith,' 'auspicious' and 'influence,' are all terms in the so-called science of astrology. Cp. J. C. iv. 3. 218-21, "There is a tide in the affairs of men, which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune; Omitted, all the voyage of their life, Is bound in shallows and in miseries."

185, 6. 'tis ... way: it is a sleepiness that is good for you, and one which it will be well for you to yield to; for the construction, it is a good dulness and give it way, cp. M. A. v. 1. 303, "I do embrace your offer; and dispose For henceforth of poor Claudio," i.e. 'and do you dispose,' etc., and v. 3. 28 of the same play, "Thanks to you all and leave us." "Dr. Warburton rightly remarks that this sleepiness, which Prospero by his art had brought upon Miranda, and of which he knew not how soon the effect would begin, makes him question her so often whether she is attentive to his story" (Johnson).

186. canst ... choose, cannot help it, have no choice but to yield to it.

189. All hail, lit. all health to you; a common form of greeting: grave sir, reverend sir, as Florizel addresses his father, disguised as an old man, "my grave sir," W. T. iv. 4. 422.

190. thy ... pleasure, whatever in your will it may seem best for me to do.

192, 3. to thy ... quality. Tax me, and all my fellaw-spirits, by giving me commands the most difficult to execute that you can think of; quality, for profession, is frequent in Shakespeare, e.g. T. G. iv. 1. 58, M. M. ii 1. 59, Haml. ii 2. 263, and seems here to mean the members of his profession, his confederate spirits, the "meaner ministers" of iii. 3. 87. Schmidt takes the word as = faculty.

194. to point, exactly in every particular; cp. M. M. iii. 1. 254, and below, 1. 500, "all points of my command:" for performed ... the tempest, executed the design of the tempest, cp. below, iii. 3. 84, "Bravely the figure of this harpy hast thou Perfom'd, my Ariel."

195. To ... article, even to the minutest detail; article, lit. a little joint.

196, 7. beak, bow, cp. Lat. rostrum used in the same sense, waist, the part of the vessel between the quarter-deck and the forecastle.

198. I ... amazement. I appeared in the shape of a flame and terrified every one; for amazement = confusion, consternation, cp. K. J. V. 1. 35.

200. distinctly, having divided myself into several flames; cp. Cor. iii. 1. 206, "And Dury all which yet distinctly ranges In heaps and piles of ruins," iv. 3. 48.

201, 2. Jove's ... thunder-claps, Steevens compares Lear. iii. 2. 5, "Vaunt couriers to oak-cleaving thunderbolts:" more momentary, more things of a moment.

203. the ... cracks, the flashes of lightning and reports of the thunder.

206. My ... spirit! Well done, my fine spirit!

207, 8. Who ... reason? Were there among them any of such resolute courage that their reason was not infected with madness? coil, turmoil, confusion, a word of Celtic origin frequent in Shakespeare, and no connection with 'to coil,' to gather together, Lat. colligo.

208, 10. Not a ... desperation. There was not one of them but behaved like a madman, when the fit is on him, and played some desperate prank or other.

211. quit, quitted; see Abb. § 341.

213. then ... hair, then standing up so stiffly that they resembled reeds rather than hair; for up-staring, cp. J. G, iv. 3. 280, "Art thou some god ... That makest my blood cold and my hair to stare?"

215. Why, ... spirit! Well done, you are my trustworthy spirit!

216. But ... shore? i.e. but I hope you managed the wreck so that those on board should be near enough to the shore to swim to it.

218. sustaining, two explanations have been given of this word, (1) the garments which bore them up, as in Haml, iv. 7. 176, "Her clothes spread wide. And mermaid-like awhile they bore her up," (2) garments which suffered this wetting. The Camb. Edd. conjecture 'sea-stained'; Spedding, 'unstaining,' or 'sea-staining.'

219. But fresher than before, but they are fresher, etc. For the ellipse, see Abb. 403.

220. troops, groups.

222. coollng of, cp. 'by telling of it,' l. 100, above, and see Abb. § 178.

223. odd angle, some out of the way corner or nook.

224. in ... knot, with his arms folded and looking very sad; Ariel here imitates the prince's attitude; cp. T. A. iii. 2. 4, "Marcus, unknit that sorrow-wreathen knot."

224, 5. Of the ... disposed, tell me how you have disposed of, where you have left, the crew of the king's ship?

226. Safely, see Abb. § 78.

229. still-vex'd, ever agitated by storms. The Bermudas (formerly 'Bermoothes') in the West Indies were popularly called the Isles of Devils, by reason of the boisterous nature of the sea round about them, which sailors accounted for by saying they were inhabited by devils.

230. under ... stow'd, packed away in the lower deck with the hatches or gratings battened down to prevent their escaping to the shore: to 'stow' is generally used of cargo, and the crew are here spoken of as if they were little better than cargo.

231. with ... labour, the sleepiness produced by their exertions was increased by a spell which Ariel threw over them.

234. flote, "flood, wave, sea ... Minsheu has 'A flote or wave. G. flot. L. fluctus,' The Guide into Tongues"... (Dyce Gloss.)

236, 7. wreck'd ... perish, 'wreck' being a trans, verb, the past part, is necessary, while 'perish,' intrans., is in the infinitive.

240. glasses, hours; time being formerly measured by hourglasses, with bulbs filled with sand which took an hour to run from one bulb to the other; a still earlier instrument for measuring time was the water-clock of the Greeks. Staunton, to obviate Prospero's answering his own question, would read, "At least two glasses — the time," etc., makine 'two glasses' in apposition to 'the time.' But there is nothing strange in Prospero's confirming Ariel's statement that it was past noon, by saying, though he did not know the exact time, that it must be at least two hours beyond noon.

242. pains, laborious tasks.

243. remember, remind; cp. W. T. iii. 2. 231, and see Abb. § 291.

244. Which ... me. A promise which has not yet been kept; for me, the indir. obj., see Abb. § 220. How now? moody? What's the matter now? Are you in the sulks? Dyce reads, "How now, moody!" i.e. what's the matter with you, you sulky fellow?

245. canst, have any claim to demand.

246. Before ... out? before the stipulated time is complete, before the time is up, as we say colloquially.

248. made ... mistakings, made no mistakes in your service; for mistakings, cp. M. M. iii. 2. 150, "Either this is envy in you, folly, or mistaking."

249. Without ... grumblings: without either repining or murmuring.

250. bate ... year, abate a whole year of service for me; me, indir. obj., cp. A. W. ii. 3. 34, "I will not bate thee a scruple."

252. think'st ... ooze, think you are performing some heavy task when, bidden by me, you dive beneath the waves and walk upon the soft mud at the bottom of the sea; for ooze, cp. H. V. i. 2. 164, "the ooze and bottom of the sea"; Cymb. iv. 2. 206, "Who ever yet could sound thy bottom? find The ooze."

255. To do me, see Abb. § 220.

256. baked, hardened, and therefore more difficult to penetrate.

257. malignant, evil-minded, ill-tempered, lit. ill-born, Lat. malignus. Johnson points out that the fallen spirits over which magicians had power were all more or less malignant, and that Caliban asserts that those which served Prospero "hate him rootedly."

258. Sycorax, has been derived from the Gk. corax, a raven, and also from another Gk. word, psychorrhagia, the death-struggle, whence Psychorrhax, "which may be translated 'heart-breaker'" (Lloyd): but neither derivation can be depended upon. envy, malice, as most generally in Shakespeare, and as frequently invidia in Latin.

259. Was ... hoop? was bent double by age.

261. Argier, the old, but less accurately spelt, name for Algiers: O, was ... so? O, you remember that, do you? said scornfully.

261-3. I must ... forget'st: I must constantly be reminding you, or you would forget it altogether.

264, 5. sorceries ... bearing, acts of sorcery terrible to relate, to be heard.

266. one thing, what this was is not specified; Boswell thinks that the incident may have been mentioned in the story, whatever it was, on which the play was founded.

269. blue-eyed, has been explained as referring to what we now call the blackness, the livid colour, seen under ttie eyes of those who are in ill-health; Dyce compares A. Y. L. iii 2, 393, "a blue eye and sunken." Staunton is inclined to the conjecture 'blear-eyed.'

271. As thou ... thyself, said contemptuously; as you profess to be, though you have just been complaining of having to serve me.

272. for, because.

273. earthy, gross; as opposed to his 'delicate' nature.

274. grand hests, mighty, important, behests, commands: refusing, as you refused; for this use of the participle with a nom. absolute, see Abb. § 376.

276. unmitigable, not to be softened by any entreaties, however urgent: for into, we should now say 'in' or 'within.'

277, 8. within ... thou, the construction is 'imprisoned within which rift, thou,' etc.

281. As fast ... strike, the metaphor is from the wheels of a mill striking the water in its rapid revolutions.

282. litter, used properly of dogs, wild beasts, etc., though in W. T. iv. 3. 25, Autolycus speaks of himself as being "littered under Mercury."

283. hag-born, born of that wizened old witch; so, l. 365 below, he is called 'hag-seed': whelp carries on the metaphor in 'litter.'

288, 9. penetrate ... bears, excite the pity of the always-savage bears; in Lear. iii. 1. 12, the bear is again instanced for its fury.

290. To lay, it was a fitting torment to be inflicted upon, etc.

290, 1. which ... undo, she having effected it only by the help of 'her more potent ministers' (l. 275).

297. correspondent to command, performing your commands precisely.

298. And do ...gently, and do my work as a spirit without reluctance; whether we read spriting, with the folios, or spiriting, the word is a dissyllable; for gently, cp. Macb. v. 7. 24, "the castle's gently rendered."

299. That's ... master! That is like my generous master, i.e. I thank you for showing me your usual generosity; cp. above, l. 215, "Why, that's my spirit!"

302. Be ... mine: I have followed Steevens and Dyce in striking out the words 'thine and' of the folios, as to which the former remarks that "the ridiculous precaution that Ariel should not be invisible to himself plainly proves that they were the interpolations of ignorance."

304. go hence ... diligence, go, take yourself hence at once.

305. dear heart, my beloved one.

307. Heaviness, sleepiness; the Camb. Edd. conjecture, 'Strange heaviness,' which greatly improves alike the metre and the sense.

310, 1. But ... him: Though he is what you describe him, yet, in our present circumstances, we cannot do without him; for miss, cp. Cor. ii. 1. 253, "he would miss it rather than carry it but by the suit of the gentry to him"; offices, duties, functions.

314. Thou earth, you mere clod; cp. 1. 273, above, "her earthy and abhorr'd commands."

316. tortoise! sluggard, you who creep about your business as slowly as a tortoise: when? an exclamation of impatience; how long am I to be kept waiting by your laziness? Cp. R. II. i. 1. 162; T. S. iv. 1. 146.

317. quaint, dainty, spruce; according to Skeat, derived from the Lat. cognitus, known, well-known, famous, not from the Lat. comptus, neat, as is commonly alleged.

320. dam, here, and frequently, a contemptuous term for mother, from being chiefly applied to animals; but not necessarily so, it being a mere variation or corruption of ' dame.'

321. wicked, baneful, poisonous; brush'd, collected by brushing.

322. With ... feather, ".. ravens' feathers were formerly used by witches from an old superstition that the wings of this bird carried with them contagion wherever they went" (Dyer, Folk-Lore of Shakespeare, pp. 142, 3). Cp. Marlowe, Jew of Malta, ii. 1. 1-41, "The sad presaging raven, that tolls The sick man's passport in her hollow beak. And in the shadow of the sable night Doth shake contagion from her sable wings."

323. a south-west. "A book with which Shakespeare appears to have been familiar tells us, 'This Southern wind is hot and moist. Southern winds corrupt and destroy, they heat and make men fall into the sickness,' Batman upon Bartholome" (Singer). Cp. Cymb. ii. 3. 136, "The south-fog rot him"; Cor, ii. 3. 34; ii. H. IV, ii. 4. 392.

326. Side-stitches ... up, sudden twitches, catchings of the breath that impede its freedom, shall hinder the breath from your lungs: urchins, "are fairies of a particular class. Hedge-hogs were also called urchins; and it is probable that the spirits were so named because they were of a mischievous kind, the urchin being anciently deemed a very noxious animal. Shakespeare again mentions these fairy beings in the M. W. iv. 2. 49, 'Like urchins, ouphes (i.e. elves), and fairies green and white.' In the phrase still current, 'a little urchin,' the idea of the fairy remains" (Singer).

327, 8. Shall, for that ... thee; 'vast, i.e. waste, applied to the darkness of midnight in which the prospect is not bounded by distinct objects" (Schmidt); shall, during that period of the darkness for which they are allowed to work, all plague you to the uttermost. Ingleby, who has been followed by Delius and Schmidt, supports T. White's conjecture, "shall forth at vast of night, that they may work All exercise upon thee," i.e. "shall go forth in the darkness of night that they may perform on thee all the penalties that I have allotted them." He denies that "to work an exercise" is a pleonasm, and says that it means to perform a penal act. Steevens remarks, "In the pneumatology of former ages, visionary beings had different allotments of time suitable to the variety of their employments. Among these we may suppose urchins to have had a part subjected to their dominion. To this limitation of time Shakespeare alludes again in Lear. iii. 4. 121, "He begins at curfew, and walks till the first cock!'"

328-30. thou ... 'em. Your body shall be as full of pinches as honey-combs are of holes, and each pinch shall be sharper than the sting of the bees that make those honey-combs: if honey-combs is the right reading, it is perhaps to be taken as a pl. in the same way as 'balance' M. V. iv. 1. 255, is used uninflected, "Por. Are there balance here to weigh the flesh? Shy. I have them ready." In both instances the idea is of the aggregate made up of two or more portions: 'em, "we often find in the dramatists em (acc.), usually printed 'em, as if it were a contraction of them which represents the old heom, hem" (Morris, Hist. Outl. p. 121).

330. I must ... dinner. In reference to Prospero's order to him (to come forth from the cave) which interrupts him while eating his dinner, and causes him to break out into cursing.

331. by ... mother, by inheritance from Sycorax, etc.

333. wouldst ... me, were in the habit of giving me; see Abb. § 330.

334. Water ... in't. Wright remarks that it would almost seem as if this were intended as a description of the yet little-known coffee.

335, 6. To name ... night, the sun which shines by day, and the moon which shines by night; cp. Genesis, i. 16, "And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night."

337. qualities, capacities, endowments.

338. brine-pits, salt pits, pits from which salt is obtained through evaporation.

339. that did so! for doing so: charms, baleful spells.

342. sty me, pen me up like swine in a pig-sty.

343. whiles, the gen. case of 'while' (time) used as a conjunction, as 'needs,' 'twice' (i.e. twies), 'else.'

346. Filth ... art, filth that you are: with ... care, with all humanity.

350. I had ... else, otherwise (i.e. if you had not stopped me) I should have, etc.

352. Which ... take, whose nature is such as to be incapable of receiving any impression of goodness, of being shaped into anything good; for which = who, see Abb. § 265.

353. Being ... ill! though your capacity for evil is unbounded; capable of, susceptible to; as frequently in Shakespeare, e.g, K. J. iii. 1, "For I am sick and capable of fears."

355-8. when ... known. When you jabbered and uttered sounds which resembled the cries of animals, and bore no consistent meaning even to yourself, I taught you how to express your wants and ideas in intelligible language.

358. race, the nature hereditary to you from your mother; 'race' in this sense of lineage, descent, direct line, is said to have no connection with Lat. radix, root. Cp. M. M. ii. 4. 160, "And now I give my sensual race the rein," though there Shakespeare may be usmg the word equivocally.

360. to be with, to dwell with.

361. Deservedly, suspected by Walker, who would arrange as follows, "Confin'd into this rock, who hadst deserved More than a prison": "note," he says, "the difference in the flow."

363, 4. and my ... curse, and the advantage I derive from it is the ability to curse.

364. The red plague, explained by Steevens as 'erysipelas,' by Rolfe as 'leprosy,' by Schmidt as one of the three different kinds of the plague-sore mentioned by the physicians of the time, the red, the yellow, and the black. rid you, destroy you; cp. iii H. VI. v. 5. 67, R. II. v. 4. ii., "I am the King's friend and will rid his foe." In modern English 'to rid' means to deliver.

365. learning teaching; see Abb. § 291. Hag-seed, see note on 1. 283, above.

366. thou'rt best, see Abb. § 230.

367. To ... business, to meet other demands which will be made upon you; cp. 1. 297, above, "I will be correspondent to command": Shrug'st thou ... malice, do you shrug your shoulders in contempt of my orders, thou spiteful beast; abstr. for concr., as below, v. i. 240, "Bravely, my diligence," i.e. my diligent one.

369. old cramps, probably intensive, as frequently in Shakespeare; abundant, plentiful; though below, iv. 1. 208, we have, "aged cramps," i.e. such as old people are subject to, in which sense Schmidt takes the word here.

370. aches, a dissyllable. Staunton remarks that, as a subs. "the word was written aches and pronounced as a dissyllable; when a verb, it was written akes, and its pronunciation was monosyllabic. This distinction is invariably marked in the old text [i.e. of Shakespeare]:" the ch was pronounced soft, is in M. A. iii. 4. 56, "Beat. By my troth, I am exceedingly ill: heigh-ho! Marg. For a hawk, or a horse, or a husband? Beat, For the letter that begins them all, H."

371. That, so that; 'so' omitted for brevity, see Abb. § 283. No, pray thee, do not do so, I pray thee ; the pronoun was frequently omitted in this phrase, which was also contracted into 'prithee.' See Abb. § 401.

373. Setebos, "according to various authorities both before and since the time of Shakespeare, was worshipped by the Patagonians; but Sycorax, as we learn from Ariel. ...was from Argier" (Collier).

376. take hands, join hands, i.e. for the dance.

377, 8. Courtsied...whilst. There are two interpretations here, (1) When you have courtsied and kissed the wild waves into silence, so that they become silent; (2) when you have courtsied and — the wild waves being silenced — have each kissed his partner. For this custom of kissing by partners before a dance, cp. H. VIII. i. 4. 95, 6, "I were unmannerly to take you out And not to kiss you. "Wlilst, the part, of the old verb 'to whist,' is frequent in Elizabethan literature.

379. Foot it, see Abb. § 226. featly, nimbly, dexterously, as in W. T. iv. 4. 176, "She dances featly.

380. the burthen bear, take up the refrain; with an allusion to the more usual meaning of bearing a burthen.

385. chanticleer, lit. clear-singing, i.e. the cock.

Stage Direction. [Burthen dispersedly, within]: i.e. the burden, 'Bow-wow,' is heard coming from different directions. The Camb. Edd. and Knight follow the Folio in making "Hark, hark," and "The watch dogs bark," part of the burthen, or refrain.

387. Where ... he? Where can it possibly be? For should used in direct questions about the past when 'shall' was used about the future, see Abb. § 325.

388. waits upon, attends as a servant.

390. Weeping again, i.e. over and over again, repeatedly; see Abb. § 27: the king my father's, to be taken as a single many-worded term, the-king-my-father's.

392. passion, sorrow.

393. its, see Abb. § 228.

394. Or it ... rather. Or rather I should say, it has drawn me; i.e. my following was compulsory, not voluntary.

396. fathom five, see note on i. 2. 53.

397. are ... made, i.e. pieces of coral.

399-401. Nothing ... strangle. All of him that is subject to decay is assimilated into something rich and strange connected with the sea, as his bones have become coral, his eyes, pearl.

405. ditty, a sort of song, more usually of a plaintive nature, but originally meaning nothing more than 'what is dictated.' does remember, makes reference to; i. H. IV, v. 4. 101., ii. H. IV. V. 2. 142.

407. owes, owns, possesses; the -n of owen, to possess, which was dropped in Elizabethan writers, has now been restored; see Abb. § 290.

408. The ... advance, lift up your eyelids, look up; cp.Per. iii. 2. 101, "her eyelids Begin to part their fringes of bright gold:" yond, yonder, adv., used incorrectly in ii. 2. 20 for yon, adj.

410. looks about, in all directions with wonder.

412. wench, see note on i. 2. 139, above. such, i.e. and no others.

414. and, but he's, and only that he is, etc.

415. that's ... canker, that eats into, and spoils, the bloom of beauty, as the canker-worm eats into and spoils the blossoms of flowers; canker, in the sense of a worm that preys upon blossoms, is frequent in Shakespeare both literally and figuratively, e.g. T. G. i. 1. 43, "in the sweetest bud The eating canker dwells; "i. H. IV. iv. 2. 32, "the cankers of a calm world and a long peace"; it is a doublet of 'cancer,' from Lat. cancer, a crab, the tumour being so named from the notion of its eating into the flesh.

417. I ... him, you say that but for his being 'something stained with grief,' I might call him a goodly person, a man of handsome figure; rather, I might caU him a thing divine: natural, human.

419. It ... on, my charm works.

420. fine spirit, that is my fine spirit! well done my dear spirit!

421, 2. Most ... attend, most surely it is the goddess to whom these magical sounds, which have drawn me here, are attendants.

422, 3. Vouchsafe ... island; grant that my prayer may know whether you live upon this island; 'my prayer,' i.e. I who humbly ask this question.

424. And that, on 'that' omitted and then inserted, see Abb. § 285.

425. bear me, conduct myself: prime request, request of first importance, though I make it last.

427. maid, unmarried.

428. My language! i.e. she speaks the same language as I do.

429, 30. I ... spoken. I am the noblest of those who speak this tongue, or should be so, were I only where, etc.

431. What ... thee? i.e, you would not dare to say so if you were in the presence of the King of Naples.

432. A ... thing, a solitary wretch; "Ferdinand plays upon the word. He believes that himself and the King of Naples are one and the same person; he therefore uses this epithet with reference to its further sense of 'solitary,' and so 'feeble and helpless.' Cp. Macb. i. 6. 16 (Wright).

433. 4. He does ... weep: he does hear me, for I myself who speak am King of Naples; and it is this iact, that by his death I am so, which makes me weep.

435. never ... ebb, which have ever since been flowing with tears.

437, 8. the Duke ... twain. "This is a slight forgetfulness. Nobody was lost in the wreck, yet we find no such character as the son of the Duke of Milan" (Theobald).

439. control thee, check and so confute you; "control is short for conter-rolle, the old form of counter-roll -- O. F. contre-role, a duplicate register, used to verify the official or first roll" (Skeat, Ety. Dict.). Staunton rather strangely fancies control may be a misprint for 'console.'

440, 1. At .. eyes. They have mutually fallen in love at first sight; they have exchanged looks of mutual affection immediately upon meeting each other.

443. I fear ... wrong; I fear that in asserting yourself to be King of Naples you have wronged yourself, not by claiming less than what is due to you, but by claiming more; a word, let me have a word with you aside.

446, 7. pity ... way! may pity move my father to look upon him with the same favour that I do!

447, 8. if ... forth, if you are still a virgin (unmarried), and if your love has not yet gone out towards, been given to, some one else; for the ellipse, see Abb. § 387.

450. They ... powers, each is in the other's power, each is subdued by love for the other; cp H. V. ii. 2. 106, "as two yoke-devils sworn to either's purpose," and for this use of both for each see Abb. § 12.

450-2. but this ... light; but I must put obstacles in the way of this love affair which is proceeding too fast, lest that which is so easily won may be valued too lightly. Cp. M. N. D. i. 1. 134, "The course of true love never did run smooth," which has passed into a proverb.

453. attend me: see note on i. 1. 78, and Abb. §§ 200, 369. owest not, have no right to.

456. the lord on 't, for this use of on for of, see Abb. § 182. as I ... man, I swear it by my manhood.

457-9. There's ... with't. It is impossible that anything of an evil nature, any soul that is not noble, can inhabit such a body; or if an ill spirit have (subjunctive in order to indicate the improbability) such a habitation, then, for the sake of its beauty, good things will desire to share that habitation; for temple, as the bodily abode of the soul, cp. Macb. ii. 3. 73, "Most sacrelegious murder hath broke ope The Lord's anointed temple"; Haml, i. 3. 12, "as this temple waxes." For the omission of the relative before can, see Abb. § 244.

460. Speak ... him, addressed to Miranda.

461. I'll ... together: this was effected by an iron wring round the neck and another round the feet, with a perpendicular bar of iron connecting them together.

463. muscles, or 'mussels,' a common shell-fish, found both in the sea and in brooks of fresh water; i.e. nothing but the coarsest and least appetising fare.

464. Wherein ... cradled: which was once the cradle of the acorn.

465. entertainment, treatment; cp. T. N. 1. 5. 231, "the rudeness that hath appeared in me have I learned from my entertainment."

Stage Direction. charmed, spell-bound by Prospero's magic.

468. fearfull, formidable, terrible. From the words, "Make not too rash a trial of him," Staunton believes that Smollett's interpretation is the true one — "he's of a lofty spirit and not to be intimidated": but Miranda in her present state is more inclined to be afraid of what may be done to Ferdinand than what he may do, and the context shows that she is fully alive to the power which her father possesses. The words, Make ... him, are quite in keeping with her anxiety for Ferdinand's safety in the sense of 'Do not be too hasty in using your powers to subdue him.'

469. My ... tutor? Do you (addressing Miranda), who are but as one of my meanest members, presume to teach me what I should do? Walker, comparing Fletcher's Pilgrim, iv. 2, "When fools and mad folks shall be tutor to me," would read, 'fool' for foot, and Dyce follows him.

471. so possess'd with, so entirely taken up with guilt; perhaps with the idea, common in Shakespeare, of being 'possessed' by a devil: from thy ward, from your posture of defence, from standing on guard with your sword drawn; for ward, cp. i. H. IV. ii 4. 215, "Thou knowest my old ward; here I lay and thus I bare my point"; and metaphorically, W. T. i 2. 33, "He's beat from his best ward."

473. Beseech you, see note on l. 372 above.

476. Shall ... thee; will cause me to rebuke you severely, and almost to hate you.

480. the most of men, the majority of mankind; to, in comparison with, in relation to.

484, 5. Thy nerves... them. Your sinews are as feeble as in your infancy; so we speak of a very feeble old man as being in his 'second childhood.' Nerves, as more usually in Shakespeare = sinews, not the fibres that convey sensation.

488, 9. nor this ... me, i.e. neither my father's death, nor the weakness which I feel, nor the wreck of all my friends, nor this man's threats, by whose superior power I am subdued, are anything but trifles, if, etc. Malone would alter are to 'were,' but Dyce points out that 'have' is used in the last line of the speech, and the construction is similar to that in iv. l. 11, 2, i.e. 'are, or would he, if,' etc. The omission of the first of several negatives is frequent in Shakespeare.

491. all corners else, all the rest of the world even to the remotest comers; cp. K. J. v. 7. 116, "Come the three corners of the world in arms, And we shall shock them."

492. Let ... of, let those who are free make, etc.: abst. for concr.

495. Hark ... me. Listen to the further instructions I have to give you.

497, 8. this ... him. The treatment you have received from him is not such as he usually shows.

499, 500. but ... command. Provided you strictly execute my commands.

501. follow, to Ferdinand. Speak ... him, to Miranda.

How to cite the explanatory notes:
Shakespeare, William. The Tempest. Ed. K. Deighton. London: Macmillan, 1890. Shakespeare Online. 15 Dec. 2013. < >.

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